Part IV of the agreement lays the groundwork for progressive liberalisation of services through successive rounds of negotiations and the development of national timetables. It also allows parties to withdraw or amend, after three years, the commitments made in their calendars. Where commitments are amended or withdrawn, negotiations should be conducted with interested parties to agree on compensatory adjustments. If there is no agreement, compensation would be decided by arbitration. Two years later, in December 1988, ministers met again in Montreal, Canada, to assess the progress made midway through. The aim was to clarify the agenda for the remaining two years, but the discussions ended in an impasse that was not resolved until officials met more calmly in Geneva in April. The agenda, originally enshrined in the Uruguay Round agreements, has experienced additions and modifications. Some items are now part of the Doha agenda, some of which have been updated. Many Uruguay Round agreements have set timetables for future work. Part of this integrated agenda started almost immediately. New or subsequent negotiations have begun in some areas. In other areas, it included assessments or audits of the situation at specific times.
Some negotiations were concluded quickly, particularly in the area of basic telecommunications and financial services. (Member State governments also quickly agreed on an agreement for the free trade in computer products, a subject not on the integrated agenda.) The delay had some advantages. It has allowed some negotiations to go further than they would have been in 1990: for example, certain aspects of services and intellectual property and the creation of the WTO itself. But the task was immense and the fatigue of the negotiations was felt in the commercial bureaucracies of the world. The difficulty of reaching agreement on a comprehensive package containing almost all of the current trade issues has allowed some to conclude that negotiations of this magnitude would never again be possible. However, the Uruguay Round agreements contain timetables for further negotiations on a number of issues. And in 1996, some countries openly called for a new cycle at the beginning of the next century. The response was mixed; but the Marrakesh agreement already contained commitments to resume negotiations on agriculture and services at the turn of the century. They began in early 2000 and were included in the Doha Development Agenda at the end of 2001. The creation of the World Trade Organization was not planned at the beginning of the negotiations in the 1986 Uruguay Round, but the discussions proposed it as the necessary institutional framework for the implementation of the final agreements. As this manual points out, the agreements reached at the end of the Uruguay Round were a major step forward in efforts to improve the regulation of international trade. In the first phase of accession procedures, the applicant government is required to submit to the WTO a memorandum covering all aspects of its trade and economic policy that are important to WTO agreements.
This will be the basis for an in-depth review within a working group.