The theory of self-determination suggests that three primary human needs determine this interaction between social and individual motivations: a) the need for competence, b) autonomy and c) kinship. Note that competence and kinship are both social and define which behaviours and outcomes influence success in mathematics, who succeeds, and how groups can (or may not) support each other to improve the success of individual members. In ancient times (Thucydides), basic agreements of mutual aid and pensions were created. At the beginning of the Roman Empire, associations were created to cover the costs of burial, cremation and monuments, precursors of funeral insurance and friendly societies. A small amount was paid weekly into a municipal fund and, after the death of a member, the fund would cover the costs of rites and funerals. These companies sometimes sold shares in the construction of dovecotes or funeral vaults, which were confirmed by the fund, forerunner of the mutuals (Johnston 1932, No. 475-476). Other early examples of mutual guarantee and guarantee pacts can be attributed to different forms of community within the Saxon clans of England and their Germanic ancestors and to Celtic society (loans of 1992). However, many of these earlier forms of guarantee and assistance would often fail due to a lack of understanding and knowledge (Faculty and Institute of Actuaries 2004). In 1936, Russian-born economist Wassily Leontief built his model of analysis of inflows and outputs from the materials balance sheets drawn up by Soviet economists, who themselves followed the previous work of the physiocrates. With its model describing a system of production and demand processes, Leontief described how demand seizures in one industry would affect production in another.
 In practice, Leontief has appreciated the coefficients of its simple models to answer economically interesting questions. In the production economy, „leontief technologies“ produce constant input production, regardless of input prices, which reduces the value of Leontief models for understanding savings, but makes it fairly easy to estimate their parameters. On the other hand, the von Neumann model allows a growing economy to choose the techniques, but the coefficients must be appreciated for each technology.   Mathematical economics is the use of mathematical methods to present theories and analyze the problems of economics.